Monday, April 25, 2022

SMS: Relational Database and Set Theory

Note: "Setting Matters Straight" is a new format: I post on LinkedIn an online Q&A involving data fundamentals that I subsequently debunk in a post here. This is to encourage readers to test their foundation knowledge against our debunking here, where we confirm what is correct and correct what is fallacious. For in-depth treatments check out the POSTS and our PAPERS, LINKS and BOOKS (or organize one of our on-site/online SEMINARS, which can be customized to specific needs). Questions and comments are welcome here and on LinkedIn.

Q: “To what extent is relational database theory related to set theory?”

A: “Relational database theory is indeed closely derived from set theory. Many operations in relational data are directly related to common operations one does with sets. In fact, SQL has keywords for them that should sound familiar to someone who has just taken a class in Discrete Mathematics:
  • UNION
  • INTERSECT
  • DIFFERENCE (called MINUS in Oracle)
Even the structure of a table is set-oriented. A table is a set of rows, and a row is a set of columns, and those columns must match the set of columns defined in the table's header.”

--Quora.com

Sunday, April 10, 2022

SMS: Quota Queries

Note: "Setting Matters Straight" (SMS) is a new format: I post on LinkedIn an online Q&A involving data fundamentals that I subsequently debunk in a post here. This is to encourage readers to test their foundation knowledge against our debunking here, where we confirm what is correct and correct what is fallacious. For in-depth treatments check out the POSTS and our PAPERS, LINKS and BOOKS (or organize one of our on-site/online SEMINARS, which can be customized to specific needs). 

Q: “How do you return the most recent record in SQL?”

A: “There are many ways of doing it. I would suggest (first thing came to my mind):
Select Top 1
from YourTable
order by TablePrimaryKey Desc;”
A: “If you mean "the last inserted record which has no datetime stamp field" ... you have a few options.
  • If you cannot use date/time -- your next best bet would be an auto-increment/sequence field, which assigns increasing numbers to each inserted record.
  • If that’s not available, you would have to rely on business logic e.g. order # or some such.
Some vendors, like Oracle, provide ROWID pseudocolumn for each record which might help in some quick’n’dirty cases -- it is not guaranteed to be sequential but could be (e.g., when table has had no DELETE operations).”    --Quora.com

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